Now for the real X-Files. The Tremonton Utah Film. 1952 was a good year for UFOs.

"The film was shot by Navy Chief Photographer, Warrant Officer Delbert Newhouse in 2 July 1952... The Newhouses... happened to see a group of about a dozen objects milling around in the sky... Newhouse, with 2000 hours flying time as an aerial photographer during his 21 years with the Navy, was in effect a professional aerial observer, a unique qualification for making the sighting.

                Realizing that in all his experiences he had never seen anything like this, he turned the turret on his movie camera to a 3-inch telephoto lens and filmed the spectacle in color. In good movie style, he held the camera steady while the disks did tight circling and other maneuvers in his field of view. Then, when one left the group he stopped the camera in front of it, letting it fly through the field of view to get its angular velocity. In short, he did a perfect job.

                ...Major Edward... Ruppelt received the film, he ran it 20 to 30 times, then called in fighter pilots for their opinions. After watching the objects circle and dart about the cloudless sky, their unanimous and unqualified comment was that no airplane could do what the UFOs were clearly doing. The film had already been studied by Navy analysts, who concluded that the disks were neither airplanes nor birds, but were intelligently controlled vehicles!

                I had the good fortune to see the Tremonton film way back in the 1950s. I saw it repeatedly at normal speed, slow motion, forward, backward, and stop motion...

My conclusions...

1. The vehicle maneuvers could not be replicated by earth vehicles.
2. Impressive propulsion in terms of accelerations and energy expended.
They appeared to use energy as though there were no allocations for tomorrow, zipping around in a playful manner like cavorting lambs "Or like Dolphins - more evidence for UFOs as sentient post-quantum devices."

3. They banked to turn in stop motion, one could see the elliptic in-between some frames.

            I had already concluded, back in 1952-53, from analysis and experiments on flying platforms, that saucers and other UFOs bank to turn. Now, here, in 1956 was the visual evidence on film... They bank to turn like an airplane, except the use a field force in place of an aerodynamic force. Otherwise, the mechanics are similar... pp 151-152

            Sudden reversals, a saucer traveling from left to right at 100 mph in level flight... tilted at 84.3 degrees with respect to the horizontal. The horizontal acceleration is ten times Earth gravity. The vehicle comes to a stop in 0.456 seconds, it is back up to a velocity of 100 mph going in the opposite direction. The elapsed time of 0.912 second is a bit short for the observer. In less than a second, before he fully realizes what is going on, the vehicle has gone from 100 mph in one direction to 100 mph in the opposite direction! In the same example, the time involved from 10 mph to the right, to 10 mph to the left is less than one tenth of a second. This is less than the time it takes our thoughts to follow what happens. Who can blame the observer for calling this an instant reversal. pp 148-149

            the UFO cannot use the atmosphere for flight like a bird or an aircraft. The aerodynamic lift points downward! The saucer disk is tilted the wrong way for positive lift. p. 147

            the propulsive waves and the ionizing waves are two separate entities that (more or less) go out together. The hard waves could be ordinary electromagnetic (EM) waves of x-ray (frequency)... The dual-wave picture," (as in deBroglie's "double solution") "based on the ring evidence that both wave types are pointed in the same direction, nevertheless indicates that we should expect atmospheric ionization to be greatest where the force field is strongest..." p. 142

            This UFO propellantless effectively antigravitational force field may be exactly the same as the recently observed large-scale cosmic repulsion of the universe from the anomalously too-dim supernovae, except on a smaller controlled scale. The Modanese model is a clue on how to do this with thin ultra high-temperature macroscopic quantum superconducting materials properly designed by nano-engineering an integrated circuit of quantum dots, wires and wells that will also be able to compute as well as propel.

            "Thus it becomes evident why the red and orange ionization that is characteristic of low-power operation is so often observed to be concentrated under the rim of the vehicle where the force field apparently emerges. The Saturn UFO's notched ring as source of (plasma) illumination detailed observations of saucer construction are meager, but the data indicates that the saucer's ring of plates and the Saturn's notched ring are located where the field action is the greatest. If the plates were not handling a lot of power, one wouldn't have been smoking... these components have something to do with processing the force field but just what they do and how is still a mystery. p. 142

            Without the ability to focus the force field, the field would have little value to a UFO... In modern missile terminology this is called 'thrust-vector control,' and I assure the reader that all UFOs use it. p. 143...

            "a force field push is characteristically non damaging. Here we have a new application of 'the soft touch.' Perhaps 'gentle push' would be a better phrase a force field with its gentle push is an ideal agent for imparting acceleration to the occupants of a space vehicle undergoing high acceleration. With the pushing directly against each internal cell of the body, none of the structure or internal organs of the body tend to get crushed or even strained. In fact, it is easy to prove that if a uniform field gradient provides the total acceleration to a passenger, the passenger undergoes no stress whatsoever. He wouldn't feel a thing, even that he was accelerating." p. 103

            This "kinder and gentler" geometrodynamic force field is like the Chinese "Chi" or "Ki". I live near San Francisco's Chinatown in North Beach and see the older Chinese doing their Chi each morning at Washington Square in the shadow of the Catholic Church as I go to the Caffe Trieste. Frohlich's idea is that the mind is a quantum superfluid. Modanese shows how this thoughtlike fluid in higher dimensional configuration space, where the entire brain is a single point, can make the kind of repulsive field Hill is inferring. Of course, the strength is weak compared to that of the UFO, but the idea is the same as far as the basic physics. So UFO's use sentient "Chi" power? :-) So Star Trek is actually correct in the physics here when Picard says "Engage" and the Enterprise goes into warp and no one bats an eyelash. Remember Paul Hill is writing the above before Alcubierre came out with his warp drive where the occupants of the Star Ship are in "free float" on a local inertial timelike geodesic even though the effective global motion relative to distant asymptotic observers is superluminal. The UFO propellantless "thrust" reaction-force field opposing d'Alembert's "inertia force". p. 146 The d'Alembertian "inertia force" is equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction, to the "thrust reaction-force" that is the UFO's mass multiplied by its acceleration. In other words, the UFO/Starship is using a (post?)quantum geometrodynamic controllable force field that is repulsive rather than attractive. This repulsion is due to a small-scale ultra-large "cosmological constant" that is manipulated at the nano-meter level IMHO. We have a new application of Galileo's principle, and Einstein's equivalence principle, here. The inhomogeneous tidal forces that are dangerous to the occupants and structural integrity of the UFO are kept small over the scale of the vehicle. Since this thrust is geometrodynamic, though repulsive, all the atoms feel it equally within the safe range where the tidal forces are biologically insignificant. All matter feels the thrust in the same way exactly the same as when a feather and an iron ball fall with the same acceleration in the vacuum on the surface of the Moon as shown in the Apollo 14 Mission.


Memorandum For The Record.  Space Defense Initiative. March 30, 1998

                I just got the book Unconventional Flying Objects. It looks good so far - up to p. 49. Call 800 766 8009, or fax 804 296 5096 or call 804 296 2772 to get a copy. It is the UFO "smoking gun". This book is a must-read especially for CSICOPs skeptics like Leon Jaroff and Victor Stenger. Phillip Corso's book gains a new credibility. Unlike Corso, Hill is a no-nonsense matter-of-fact well-trained (NASA) engineer who knows the right stuff, understands scientific method and conventional physics and has detailed data and checkable analysis. Hill personally saw UFOs and his descriptions are very detailed. Hill could be teaching undergraduate physics or basic engineering at any California State University. He would fit right in if he were still alive. If NASA's Marc Millis and his friends have not yet read this book they better now. They probably have read it but are not going public. Indeed, Hill's book is probably the reason that NASA Administrator, Dan Goldin, is supporting "breakthrough propellantless propulsion".

                ***All of my military friends reading this, especially my special friend with combat pilot-training writing the new manual, need to study this book ASAP! In fact, the NATO air forces need to be advised on this ASAP. Hill's book needs to be distributed to key NATO military. It also needs to be distributed to Colonel John Alexander's "Nonlethal Warfare" Network. The Navy also has a need to know because UFOs can maneuver on the surface of and under water. Make it so.***

                A few key points. I will go into more detail as I read through the book. These objects are real machines, not merely projections of Jungian archetypes in the mind or intrusions of extra-dimensional beings. I am not denying that both of the latter may not also be playing a more subtle role. I am a bit puzzled now about exactly where Jacques Vallee stands on the metallic machine evidence for UFOs?

1. There are smaller disk-shaped craft that come from a larger cigar-shaped "mother ship".

2. Sizes range from 8 inches to a 1000 feet for the mother cylindrical craft. There is also a "dirigible" version of a few hundred feet. The disks are in range of 1 to 30 meters. Saturn-like vehicles with a "ring" are in 5 to 15 meter range. Conical hat types about 200 meters.

3. Color in daylight brightly polished silver to dull aluminum. Flat-bottoms are darker underneath in a central circular area or in annular ring near the rim. Running lights at night in many patterns. Blinking, theater marquee, Xmas tree. Solid lights in red, orange, amber, yellow, blue, blue-violet, brilliant white singly and in combinations. Solid colors resemble neon lighting.

4. Halos at night, neon-like, solid color luminescence emanating from an envelope of air around the metallic hard surfaces. Bullets ricochet from these surfaces. In saucers and saturns the halo concentrates near the "ring" rim more intensely below than above it. Sometimes an ice cream cone halo underneath the saucer. The big cylindrical mother ships sometimes have great white cloud.

5. Wakes: dirigibles and cylinders have plume-like wakes when accelerating rapidly or moving a high speeds. These wakes are gray to straw-colored in daylight, flame-colored at night. UFOs can move slow at 100 mph without generating a wake.

6. Jitter - at times they vibrate heavily. UFO motion is jerky and jittery at low speed. This could be an optical effect rather than a real jitter.

7. Absence of heat near a UFO. So not much infra-red emanations. Mild sensation of warmth. The surfaces of the UFO are not very hot. Nothing is at a red heat.

8. Maneuvers. Hovering at any altitude is common. UFOs hover close to the ground for long times instead of landing. The different maneuvers include:

a. falling leaf or UFO-rock like a coin falling in water

b. silver-dollar wobble - like a coin with a slow spin on a flat surface. This maneuver is consistently observed at the end of a rapid descent as the UFO initiates hovering

c. acute-angle turn with rapid stop at the vertex

d. sudden reversal of direction

e. bank and turn - exactly like conventional aircraft

f. straight-away speed run either horizontal or vertical! g. tilt to maneuver "UFOs tilt to perform all maneuvers... they sit level to hover, tilt forward to move forward, tilt backward to stop, bank to turn"

9. Speed 9,000 mph at altitudes 60,000 feet, 18,000 feet,, 3,500 feet from military radar observations.

10. Accelerations are typically 100g, which is 10x larger than our fighting air machines, but less than our small anti-tank tube or gun-launched missiles whose internal computers and gyroscopes are designed to withstand 9,000g back in 1975. What would such a small missile do to a UFO at close range?

            * Note this 100g figure is what is seen by external observers. The ship itself and its occupants may be in the local inertial frame (LIF) motion of "free-float" i.e. zero g just like our astronauts orbiting the Earth with rockets switched off and no spinning of the craft.*

11. UFOs observed as high as 200 miles from surface of Earth. So they are space-capable.

12. Sound: hum, buzz, whine at close quarters. Sound rises in both pitch and intensity seconds before and during take-off. Steady motion either a light swish-of-air sound or running absolutely silent. With few exceptions NO ROAR OR BOOM WHEN MOVING AT SUPERSONIC SPEED!

13. Weight 30 tons - for an ellipsoidal craft 6 meters axial, 3 meters cross diameter. This is 965 kilos per cubic meter, which is like our modern nuclear submarines, but is more than our jet airplanes. UFOs have retractable landing gear three 6"x12" rectangles in equilateral triangle of 6 meter sides with X-print 5" deep in hard soil, for a 10 meter disk.

14. Nests and rings: saucers land without extending their retractable gear in reeds or soft ground leaving nest-like imprints. They swirl down grass rings like the "crop circles" perhaps? Hovering saucers form chemically and physicall altered annular rings in the earth itself. Also charred roots and wilted plants are found.

15. Propulsion: no visible means. There is no jet propulsion. There is no ejection of propellant of any kind. The 100g accelerations would require conventional jet engines that are unattainable with known technology. This is not how they do it. Some kind of force field is involved. These fields bend and break tree branches, bump or slow automobiles spinning them out of control or tipping them over, stop people by force or knock them down.

*16. High degree of nuclear radioactivity and X-rays near UFOs! This is not healthy.

17. Merging: spheres and saucers leave and enter large cylinders and dirigibles.

18. Occupants seen engaged in collecting plants, minerals, water, manually and using suction hoses.

***19. EMP is strong. All electrical circuitry interupted, batteries are burned out, gasoline engines stop, diesel engines OK. Conventional fighter aircraft attacking UFOs at close quarters will be destroyed by EMP unless specially hardened.***

20. Alien weaponry includes heat beams, paralyzing beams, force tractor beams both as tools and weapons. UFO occupants are apparently not mad dogs killing sadistically. Generally they use nonlethal levels for their weapons to defend against attacks. NATO forces should not initiate attacks unless attacked. UFOs have pattern of intruding on our defense bases and also key hydroelectric plants. They are also interested in getting close to water like lakes.


Introductory Space Science - Vol II. Dept Of Physics - USAF. Ed: Maj Donald G. Carpenter., Lt.Col. Edward R. Therkelson. UNIDENTIFIED FLYING OBJECTS

                What is an Unidentified Flying Object (UFO)? Well, according to United States Air Force Regulation 80-17 (dated 19 September 1966), a UFO is "Any" aerial Phenomenon or object which is unknown or appears to be out of the ordinary to the observer." This is a very broad definition which applies equally well to one individual seeing his first noctilucent cloud at twilight as it does to another individual seeing his first helicopter. However, at present most people consider the term UFO to mean an object which behaves in a strange or erratic manner while moving through the Earth's atmosphere. That strange phenomenon has evoked strong emotions and great curiosity among a large segment of our world's population. The average person is interested because he loves a mystery, the professional military man is involved because of the possible threat to national security, and some scientist are interested because of the basic curiosity that led them into becoming researchers.

                The literature on UFO's is so vast, and the stories so many and varied, that we can only present a sketchy outline of the subject in this chapter. That outline includes description classifications, operational domains (temporal and spatial), some theories as to the nature of the UFO phenomenon, human reactions, attempts to attack the problem scientifically, and some tentative conclusions. If you wish to read further in this area, the references provide an excellent starting point.



                One of the greatest problems you encounter when attempting to catalog UFO sightings, is selection of a system for cataloging. No effective system has yet been devised, although a number of different systems have been proposed. The net result is that almost all UFO data are either treated in the form of individual cases, or in the forms of inadequate callification systems. However, these systems do tend to have some common factors, and a collection of these factors is as follows:

a. Size                    b. Shape (disc, ellipse, football, etc.)               c. Luminosity       d. Color                 e. Number of UFO's



a. Location (altitude, direction, etc.)                                               b. Patterns of paths (straight line, climbing, zig-zagging, etc.)

c. Flight Characteristics (wobbling, fluttering, etc.)                       d. Periodicity of sightings

e. Time duration                                                                              f. Curiosity or inquisitiveness

g. Avoidance                                                                                   h. Hostility


Associated Effects:

a. Electro-Magnetic (compass, radio, ignition systems, etc.)

b. Radiation (burns, induced radioactivity, etc.)

c. Ground disturbance (dust stirred up, leaves moved, standing wave peaks of surface of water, etc.)

d. Sound (none, hissing, humming, roaring, thunderclaps, etc.)

e. Vibration (weak, strong, slow, fast)

f. Smell (ozone or other odor)

g. Flame (how much, where, when, color)

h. Smoke or cloud (amount, color, persistence)

i. Debris (type, amount, color, persistence)

j. Inhibition of voluntary movement by observers

k. Sighting of "creatures" or "beings"


After Effects:

a. Burned areas or animals

b. depressed or flattened areas

c. Dead or "missing animals"

d. Mentally disturbed people

e. Missing items


We make no attempt here to present available data in terms of the foregoing descriptors.



                What we will do here is to present evidence that UFO's are a global phenomenon which may have persisted for many thousands of years. During this discussion, please remember that the more ancient the reports the less sophisticated the observer. Not only were the ancient observers lacking the terminilogy necessary to describe complex devices (such as present day helicopters) but they were also lacking the concepts necessary to understand the true nature of such things as television, spaceships, rockets, nuclear weapons and radiation effects. To some, the most advanced technological concept was a war chariot with knife blades attached to the wheels. By the same token, the very lack of accurate terminolgy and descriptions leaves the more ancient reports open to considerable misinterpretation, and it may well be that present evaluations of individual reports are completely wrong. Nevertheless, let us start with an intriguing story in one of the oldest chronicles of India... the Book of Dzyan.

                The book is a group of "story-teller" legends which were finally gathered in manuscript form when man learned to write. One of the stories is of a small group of beings who supposedly came to Earth many thousands of years ago in a metal craft which orbited the Earth several times before landing. As told in the Book "These beings lived to themselves and were revered by the humans among whom they had settled. But eventually differences arose among them and they divided their numbers, several of the men and women and some children settled in another city, where they were promptly installed as rulers by the awe-stricken populace.

                "Separation did not bring peace to these people and finally their anger reached a point where the ruler of the original city took with him a small number of his warriors and they rose into the air in a huge shining metal vessel. While they were many leagues from the city of their enemies, they launched a great shining lance that rode on a beam of light. It burst apart in the city of their enemies with a great ball of flame that shot up to the heavens, almost to the stars. All those who were in the city were horribly burned and even those who were not in the city - but nearby - were burned also. Those who looked upon the lance and the ball of fire were blinded forever afterward. Those who entered the city on foot became ill and died. Even the dust of the city was poisoned, as were the rivers that flowed through it. Men dared not go near it, and it gradually crumbled into dust and was forgotten by men."

                "When the leader saw what he had done to his own people he retired to his palace and refused to see anyone. Then he gathered about him those warriors who remained, and their wives and children, and they entered their vessels and rose one by one into the sky and sailed away. Nor did they return."

                Could this foregoing legend really be an account of an extraterestrial colonization, complete with guided missle, nuclear warhead and radiation effects? It is difficult to assess the validity of that explanation...just as it is difficult to explain why Greek, Roman and Nordic Mythology all discuss wars and contacts among their "Gods." (Even the Bible records conflict between the legions of God and Satan.) Could it be that each group recorded their parochial view of what was actually a global conflict among alien colonists or visitors? Or is it that man has led such a violent existence that he tends to expect conflict and violence among even his gods?

                Evidence of perhaps an even earlier possible contact was uncovered by Tschi Pen Lao of the University of Peking. He discovered astonishing carvings in granite on a mountain in Hunan Province and on an island in Lake Tungting. These carvings have been evaluated as 47,000 years old, and they show people with large trunks (breathing apparatus?...or "elephant" heads shown on human bodies? Remember, the Egyptians often represented their gods as animal heads on human bodies.)

                Only 8,000 years ago, rocks were sculpted in the Tassili plateau of Sahara, depicting what appeared to be human beings but with strange round heads (helmets? or "sun" heads on human bodies?) And even more recently, in the Bible, Genesis (6:4) tells of angels from the sky mating with women of Earth, who bore them children. Genesis 19:3 tells of Lot meeting two angels in desert and his later feeding them at his house. The Bible also tells a rather unusual story of Ezekiel who witnessed what has been interpreted by some to have been a spacecraft or aircraft landing near the Chebar River in Chaldea (593 B.C.).

                Even the Irish have recorded strange visitations. In the Speculum Regali in Konungs Skuggsa (and other accounts of the era about 956 A.D.) are numerous stories of "demonships" in the skies. In one case a rope from one such ship became entangled with part of a church. A man from the ship climbed down the rope to free it, but was seized by the townspeople. The Bishop made the people release the man, who climbed back to the ship, where the crew cut the rope and the ship rose and sailed out of sight.

                In all of his actions, the climbing man appeared as if he were swimming in water. Stories such as this makes one wonder if the legends of the "little people" of Ireland were based upon imagination alone.

                About the same time, in Lyons (France) three men and a women supposedly descended from an airship or spaceship and were captured by a mob. These foreigners admitted to being wizards, and were killed. (No mention is made of the methods employed to extract the admissions.) Many documented UFO sightings occurred throughout the Middle Ages, including an especially startling one of a UFO over London on 16 December 1742. However, we do not have room to include any more of the Middle Ages sightings. Instead, two "more-recent" sightings are contained in this section to bring us up to modern times.

                In a sworn statement dated 21 April 1897, a prosperous and prominent farmer named Alexander Hamilton (Le Roy, Kansas, U.S.A.) told of an attack upon his cattle at about 10:30 PM the previous Monday. He, his son, and his tenant grabbed axes and ran some 700 feet from the house to the cow lot where a great cigar-shaped ship about 300 feet long floated some 30 feet above his cattle. It had a carriage underneath which was brightly lighted within (dirigible and gondola?) and which had numerous windows. Inside were six strange looking beings jabbering in a foreign language. These beings suddenly became aware of Hamilton and the others. They immediately turned a searchlight on the farmer, and also turned on some power which sped up a turbine wheel (about 30 ft diameter) located under the craft. The ship rose, taking with it a two-year old heifer which was roped about the neck by a cable of one-half inch thick, red material. The next day a neighbor, Link Thomas, found the animal's hide, legs and head in his field. He was mystified at how the remains got to where they were because of the lack of tracks in the soft soil. Alexander Hamilton's sworn statement was accompanied by an affidavit as to his veracity. The affidavit was signed by ten of the local leading citizens.

                On the evening of 4 November 1957 at Fort Itaipu, Brazil, two sentries noted a "new star" in the sky. The "star" grew in size and within seconds stopped over the fort. It drifted slowly downward, was as large as a big aircraft, and was surrounded by a strong orange glow. A distinct humming sound was heard, and then the heat struck. A Sentry collapsed almost immediately, the other managed to slide to shelter under the heavy cannons where his loud cries awoke the garrison. While the troops were scrambling towards their battle stations, complete electrical failure occurred. There was panic until the lights came back on but a number of men still managed to see an orange glow leaving the area at high speed. Both sentries were found badly unconscious and the other incoherent, suffering from deep shock.

                Thus, UFO sightings not only appear to extend back to 47,000 years through time but also are global in nature. One has the feeling that this phenomenon deserves some sort of valid scientific investigation, even if it is a low level effort.



                There are very few cohesive theories as to the nature of UFO's. Those theories that have been advanced can be collected in five groups:


Mysticism. It is believed by some cults that the mission of UFO's and their crews is a spiritual one, and that all materialistic efforts to determine the UFO's nature are doomed to failure.


Hoaxes and Rantings due to Unstable Personalities. Some have suggested that all UFO reports were the results of pranks and hoaxes, or were made by people with unstable personalities. This attitude was particularly prevalent during the time period when the Air Force investigation was being operated under the code name of Project Grudge. A few airlines even went as far as to ground every pilot who reported seeing a "flying saucer." The only way for the pilot to regain flight status was to undergo a psychiatric examination. There was a noticeable decline in pilot reports during this time interval, and a few interpreted this decline to prove that UFO's were either hoaxes or the result of unstable personalities. It is of interest that NICAP (The National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena) even today stillreceives reports from commercial pilots who neglect to notify either the Air Force or their own airline.

                There are a number of cases which indicate that not all reports fall in the hoax category. We will examine one such case now. It is the Socorro, New Mexico sighting made by police Sergeant Lonnie Zamora. Sergeant Zamora was patrolling the streets of Socorro on 24 April 1964 when he saw a shiny object drift down into an area of gullies on the edge of town. He also heard a loud roaring noise which sounded as if an old dynamite shed located out that way had exploded. He immediately radioed police headquarters, and drove out toward the shed. Zamora was forced to stop about 150 yards away from a deep gully in which there appeared to be an overturned car. He radioed that he was investigating a possible wreck, and then worked his car up onto the mesa and over toward the edge of the gully. He parked short, and when he walked the final few feet to the edge, he was amazed to see that it was not a car but instead was a weird eggshaped object about fifteen feet long, white in color and resting on short, metal legs. Beside it, unaware of his presence were two humanoids dressed in silvery coveralls. They seemed to be working on a portion of the underside of the object. Zamora was still standing there, surprised, when they suddenly noticed him and dove out of sight around the object. Zamora also headed the other way, back toward his car. He glanced back at the object just as a bright blue flame shot down from the underside. Within seconds the eggshaped thing rose out of the gully with "an earsplitting roar." The object was out of sight over the nearby mountains almost immediately, and Sergeant Zamora was moving the opposite direction almost as fast when he met Sergeant Sam Chavez who was responding to Zamora's earlier radio calls. Together they investigated the gully and found the bushes charred and still smoking where the blue flame had jetted down on them. About the charred area were four deep marks where the metal legs had been. Each mark was three and one half inches deep, and was circular in shape. The sand in the gully was very hard packed so no sign of the humanoids' footprints could be found. An official investigation was launched that same day, and all data obtained supported the stories of Zamora and Chavez. It is rather difficult to label this episode a hoax, and it is also doubtful that both Zamora and Chavez shared portions of the same hallucination.


Secret Weapons. A few individuals have proposed that UFO's are actually advanced weapon systems, and that their natures must not be revealed. Very few people accept this as a credible suggestion.


Natural Phenomena. It has also been suggested that at least some, and possibly all of the UFO cases were just mis-interpreted manifestations of natural phenomena. Undoubtedly this suggestion has some merit. People have reported, as UFO's, objects which were conclusively proven to be balloons (weather and skyhook), the planet Venus, man-made artificial satellites, normal aircraft, unusual cloud formations, and lights from ceilometers (equipment projecting light beams on cloud bases to determine the height of the aircraft visual ceiling). It is also suspected that people have reported mirages, optical illusions, swamp gas and ball lightning (a poorly-understood discharge of electrical energy in a spheroidal or ellipsoidal shape...some charges have lasted for up to fifteen minutes but the ball is usually no bigger than a large orange.) But it is difficult to tell a swamp dweller that the strange, fast-moving light he saw in the sky was swamp gas; and it is just as difficult to tell a farmer that a bright UFO in the sky is the same ball lightning that he has seen rolling along his fence wires in dry weather. Thus accidental mis-identification of what might well be natural phenomena breeds mistrust and disbelief; it leads to the hasty conclusion that the truth is deliberatly not being told. One last suggestion of interest has been made, that the UFO's were plasmoids from space...concentrated blobs of solar wind that succeeded in reaching the surface of the Earth. Somehow this last suggestion does not seem to be very plausible; perhaps because it ignores such things as penetration of Earth's magnetic field.


Alien Visitors. The most stimulating theory for us is that the UFO's are material objects which are either "Manned" or remote-controlled by beings who are alien to this planet. There is some evidence supporting this viewpoint. In addition to police Sergeant Lonnie Zamora's experience, let us consider the case of Barney and Betty Hill. On a trip through New England they lost two hours on the night of 19 September 1961 without even realizing it. However, after that night both Barney and Betty began developing psychological problems which eventually grew sufficiently severe that they submitted themselves to psychiatric examination and treatment. During the course of treatment hypnotherapy was used, and it yielded remarkably detailed and similar stories from both Barney and Betty. Essentially they had been hypotically kidnapped, taken aboard a UFO, submitted to two-hour physicals, and released with posthypnotic suggestions to forget the entire incident. The evidence is rather strong that this is what the Hills, even in their subconscious, believe happened to them. And it is of particular importance that after the "posthypnotic block" was removed, both of the Hills ceased having their psychological problems.

                The Hill's description of the aliens was similar to descriptions provided in other cases, but this particular type of alien appears to be in the minority. The most commonly described alien is about three and one half feet tall, has a round head (helmet?), arms reaching to or below his knees, and is wearing a silvery space suit or coveralls. Other aliens appear to be essentially the same as Earthmen, while still others have particularily wide (wrap around) eyes and mouths with very thin lips. And there is a rare group reported as about four feet tall, weight of around 35 pounds, and covered with thick hair or fur (clothing?). Members of this last group are described as being extremely strong. If such beings are visiting Earth, two questions arise: 1) why haven't they attempted to contact us officially? The answer to the first question may exist partially in Sergeant Lonnie Zamora's experience, and may exist partially in the Tunguska metor discussed in Chapter XXIX. In that chapter it was suggested that the Tunguska metor was actually a comet which exploded in the atmosphere, the ices melted and the dust spread out. Hence, no debris. However, it has also been suggested that the Tunguska meteor was actually an alien spacecraft that entered the atmosphere too rapidly, suffered mechanical failure, and lost its power supply and/or weapons in a nuclear explosion. While that hypothesis may seem far fetched, sample of tree rings from around the world reveal that, immediately after the Tunguska meteor explosion, the level of radioactivity in the world rose sharply for a short period of time. It is difficult to find a natural explanation for that increase in radioactivity, although the suggestion has been advanced that enough of the meteor's great Kinetic energy was converted into heat (by atmospheric friction) that a fusion reaction occurred. This still leaves us with no answer to the second question: why no contact? That question is very easy to answer in several ways: 1) we may be the object of intensive sociological and psychological study. In such studies you usually avoid disturbing the test subjects' environment; 2) you do not "contact" a colony of ants, and humans may seem that way to any aliens (variation: a zoo is fun to visit, but you don't "contact" the lizards); 3) such contact may have already taken place secretly; and 4) such contact may have already taken place on a different plane of awareness and we are not yet sensitive to communications on such a plane. These are just a few of the reasons. You may add to the list as you desire.



                Besides the foregoing reasons, contacting humans is downright dangerous. Think about that for a moment! On the microscopic level our bodies reject and fight (through production antibodies) any alien material; this process helps us fight off disease but it also sometimes results in allergic reactions to innocous materials. On the macroscopic (psychological and sociological) level we are antagonistic to beings that are "different". For proof of that, just watch how an odd child is treated by other children, or how a minority group is socially deprived, or how the Arabs feel about the Israelis (Chinese vs Japanese, Turks vs Greeks, etc.) In case you are hesitant to extend that concept to the treatment of aliens let me point out that in very ancient times, possible extraterrestrials may have been treated as Gods but in the last two thousand years, the evidence is that any possible aliens have been ripped apart by mobs, shot and shot at, physically assaulted, and in general treated with fear and aggression.

                In Ireland about 1,000 A.D., supposed airships were treated as "demonships." In Lyons, France, "admitted" space travellers were killed. More recently, on 24 July 1957 Russian anti- aircraft batteries on the Kouril Islands opened fire on UFO's. Although all Soviet anti-aircraft batteries on the Islands were in action, no hits were made. The UFO's were luminous and moved very fast. We too have fired on UFO's. About ten o'clock one morning, a radar site near a fighter base picked up a UFO doing 700 mph. The UFO then slowed to 100 mph, and two F-86's were scrambled to intercept. Eventually one F-86 closed on the UFO at about 3,000 feet altitude. The UFO began to accelerate away but the pilot still managed to get within 500 yards of the target for a short period of time. It was definately saucer shaped. As the pilot pushed the F-86 at top speed, the UFO began to pull away. When the range reached 1,000 yards, the pilot armed his guns and fired in an attempt to down the saucer. He failed, and the UFO pulled away rapidly, vanishing in the distance. This same basic situation may have happened on a more personal level.

              On Sunday evening 21 August 1955, eight adults and three children were on the Sutton Farm (one-half mile from Kelly, Kentucky) when, according to them, one of the children saw a brightly glowing UFO settle behind the barn, out of sight from where he stood. Other witnesses on nearby farms also saw the object. However, the Suttons dismissed it as a "shooting star", and did not investigate. Approximately thirty minutes later (at 8:00 pm), the family dogs began barking so two of the men went to the back door and looked out. Approximately 50 feet away and coming toward them was a creature wearing a glowing silvery suit. It was about three and one-half feet tall with a large round head and very long arms. It had large webbed hands which were equipped with claws. The two Suttons grabbed a twelve gauge shotgun and a .22 caliber pistol, and fired at close range. They could hear the pellets and bullet ricochet as if off of metal. The creature was knocked down, but jumped up and scrambled away. The Suttons retreated into the house, turned off all inside lights, and turned on the porch light. At that moment, one of the women who was peeking out of the dining room window discovered that a creature with some sort of helmet and wide slit eyes was peeking back at her. She screamed, the men rushed in and started shooting. The creature was knocked backwards but again scrambled away without apparent harm. More shooting occurred (a total of about 50 rounds) over the next 20 minutes and the creatures finally left (perhaps feeling unwelcome?). After about a two hour wait (for safety), the Suttons left too.

                By the time the police got there, the aliens were gone but the Suttons would not move back to the farm. They sold it and departed. This reported incident does bear out the contention though that humans are dangerous. At no time in the story did the supposed aliens shoot back, although one is left with the imprssion that the described creatures were having fun scaring humans.



                In any scientific endeavor, the first step is to aquire data, the second step to classify the data, and the third step to form hypothesis. The hypothesis are tested by repeating the entire process, with each cycle resulting in an increase in understanding (we hope). The UFO phenomenon does not yield readily to this approach because the data taken so far exhibits both excessive variety and vagueness. The vagueness is caused in part by the lack of preparation of the observer...very few people leave their house knowing that they are going to see a UFO that evening. Photographs are overexposed or underexposed, and rarely in color. Hardly anyone carries around a radiation counter or magnetometer. And, in addition to this, there is a very high level of "noise" in the data.

                The noise consists of mistaken reports of known natural phenomena, hoaxes, reports by unstable individuals and mistaken removal of data regarding possible unnatural or unknown natural phenomena (by overzealous individuals who are trying to eliminate all data due to known natural phenomena). In addition, those data, which do appear to be valid, exhibit an excessive amount of variety relative to the statistical samples which are available. This has led to very clumsy classification systems, which in turn provide quite unfertile ground for formulation of hypothesis.

                One hypothesis which looked promising for a time was that of ORTHOTENY (i.e., UFO sightings fall on "great circle" routes). At first, plots of sightings seemed to verify the concept of orthoteny but recent use of computers has revealed that even random numbers yield "great circle" plots as neatly as do UFO sightings.

                There is one solid advance that has been made though. Jacques and Janine Vallee have taken a particular type of UFO - namely those that are lower than tree-top level when sighted - and plotted the UFO's estimated diameter versus the estimated distance from the observer. The result yields an average diameter of 5 meters with a very characteristic drop for short viewing distances. This behavior at the extremes of the curve is well known to astronomers and psychologists as the "moon illusion." The illusion only occurs when the object being viewed is a real, physical object. Because this implies that the observers have viewed a real object, it permits us to accept also their statement that these particular UFO's had a rotational axis of symmetry.

                Another, less solid, advance made by the Vallee's was their plotting of the total number of sightings per week versus the date. They did this for the time span from 1947 to 1962, and then attempted to match the peaks of the curve (every 2 years 2 months) to the times of Earth-Mars conjuction (every 2 years 1.4 months). The match was very good between 1950 and 1956 but was poor outside those limits. Also, the peaks were not only at the times of Earth-Mars conjunction but also roughly at the first harmonic (very loosely, every 13 months). This raises the question why should UFO's only visit Earth when Mars is in conjunction and when it is on the opposite side of the sun. Obviously, the conjunction periodicity of Mars is not the final answer. As it happens, there is an interesting possibility to consider. Suppose Jupiter's conjunctions were used; they are every 13.1 months. That would satisfy the observed periods nicelly, except for every even data peak being of different magnitude from every odd data peak. Perhaps a combination of Martian, Jovian, and Saturnian (and even other planetary) conjunctions will be necessary to match the frequency plot...if it can be matched.

                Further data correlation is quite difficult. There are a large number of different saucer shapes but this may mean little. For example, look at the number of different types of aircraft which are in use in the U. S. Air Force alone.

                In is obvious that intensive scientific study is needed in this area; no such study has yet been undertaken at the necessary levels of intensity needed. Something that must be guarded against in any such study is the trap of implicity assuming that our knowledge of Physics (or any other branch of science) is complete. An example of one such trap is selecting a group of physical laws which we now accept as valid, and assume that they will never be superceded. Five such laws might be:

                1) Every action must have an opposite and equal reaction.

                2) Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force proportional to the product of the masses and inversely as the square of the distance.

                3) Energy, mass and momentum are conserved.

                4) No material body can have a speed as great as c, the speed of light in free space.

                5) The maximum energy, E, can be obtained from a body at rest is E=mc2, where m is the rest mass of the body.

Laws numbered 1 and 3 seem fairly safe, but let us hesitate and take another look. Actually, law number 3 is only valid (now) from a relativistic viewpoint; and for that matter so are laws 4 and 5. But relativity completely revised these physical concepts after 1915, before then Newtonian mechanics were supreme. We should also note that general relativity has not yet been verified. Thus we have the peculiar situation of five laws which appear to deny the possibility of intelligent alien control of UFO's, yet three of the laws are recent in concept and may not even be valid. Also, law number 2 has not yet been tested under conditions of large relative speeds or accelerations. We should not deny the possibility of alien control of UFO's on the basis of preconceived notions not established as related or relevant to the UFO's.



                From available information, the UFO phenomenon appears to have been global in nature for almost 50,000 years. The majority of known witnesses have been reliable people who have seen easily-explained natural phenomena, and there appears to be no overall possitive correlation with population density. The entire phenomenon could be psychological in nature but that is quite doubtful. However, psychological factors probably do enter the data picture as "noise." The phenomenon could also be entirely due to known and unknown phenomena (with some psychological "noise" added in) but that too is questionable in view of some of the available data.

                This leaves us with the unpleasant possibility of alien visitors to our planet, or at least of alien controlled UFO's. However, the data are not well correlated, and what questionable data there are suggest the existence of at least three and maybe four differnet groups of aliens (possibly at different states of development). This too is difficult to accept. It implies the existence of intelligent life on a majority of the planets in our solar system, or a surprisingly strong interest in Earth by members of other solar systems.

                A solution to the UFO problem may be obtained by the long and diligent effort of a large group of well financed and competent scientists, unfortunately there is no evidence suggesting that such an effort is going to be made. However, enen if such an effort were made, there is no guarantee of success because of the isolated and sporatic nature of the sightings. Also, there may be nothing to find, and that would mean a long search with no profit at the end. The best thing to do is to keep an open and skeptical mind, and not take an extreme position on any side of the question.

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